Sunday, 29 July 2012

Indian Bike/Two-wheeler Sales Figures for June 2012

Check out the sales figures of Indian Two Wheeler companies for the month of June, 2012.
Hero Motocorp. Sales Figures – June, 2012
Hero MotoCorp India’s no. 1 two wheeler company has posted growth of 4.27% in the month of June 2012 compared to June 2011.  The company has sold 5,34,091 units of two wheelers in the month of June 2012 compared to 5,00,234 units of two wheelers sold in the month of June 2011. On the month on month basis the sale is down by 4.05%. The company has sold 5,56,644 units in the month of May 2012.
Cumulative sales for the period of April to June 2012 reported growth of 7.37% over the last year same period. The company sold 16,42,292 units this year compared to 15,29,577 units last year for the period of April to June. The company is facing high level of inventory at dealer and company level as well. All the incremental growth in this quarter has achieved by building inventory only. The company aims to sell 7 million two wheelers this year.
Bajaj Auto Sales Figures - June, 2012
Country’s second largest two wheeler maker, Bajaj Auto has reported de growth of 1.38 % in the month of June 2012. The company has sold 3,18,377 units of motorcycle in the month of June 2012 compared to 3,22,827 units in the month of June 2011. The company exported 1,16,062 units in the month of June 2012 down by 18.34% compared to 1,42,124 units in the month of June 2011. On the month on month basis sales is down by 1.10%. The company sold 3,21,922 units in the month of May 2012.
The company’s total sales stood at 3,45,162 units in the month of June 2012 down by 5.86% compared to 3,66,657 units in the month of June 2011. Cumulative sales for the period of April to June 2012 reported growth of 2.03% over the last year same period. The company sold 9,82,623 units of motorcycle this year compared to 9,63,051 units last year for the period of April to June. Domestic motorcycle sales stood at 6,18,489 units down by 0.75% compared to 6,23,175 units. Export stood at 3,64,134 units up by 7.14% compared  to 3,39,876 units. The company aims to sell 4.5 million motorcycles this year.
HMSI   Sales Figures – June, 2012
India’s largest scooter manufacturing company Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Ltd reported growth of 52.32% in the month of June 2012. The company reported sales of 2,26,864 units in the month of June 2012 compared to 1,48,937 units in the June 2011. On month on month basis the company’s sales is up by 2.40%. The company sold 2,21,540 units in the month of May 2012.
Motorcycle sales stood at 1,03,130 units in the month of June 2012 up by 47.04% compared to June 2011 where it sold 70,135 units. The company reported 57.02% jump in sales of Scooter. The company sold 1,23,739 units of scooter in the month of June 2012 compared to 78,802 units in the month of June 2011. Cumulative sales for the period of April to June 2012 reported growth of 50.07% over the last year same period. The company sold 6,47,235 units this year compared to 4,31,288 units last year for the period of April to June. The company aims to sell 2.8 million units this year.
TVS Motors Sales Figures – June, 2012
TVS Motors has posted de growth of 7.39% in the month of June 2012. The company has sold 1,65,438 units in the month of June 2012 compared to 1,78,633 units sold in the month of June 2011. Total sales stood at 1,68,693 units in the month of June 2012 down by 7.54% compared to 1,82,456 units sold in the same period last year. On the month on basis the company has reported sales de growth of 4.42%. The company has sold 1,73,092 units of two wheeler in the month of May 2012. Domestic sales stood at 1,47,893 units in the month of June 2012 down by  4.77% compared to 1,55,296 units sold in the month of June 2011. Export stood at 17,545 units in the month of June 2012 down by 24.82% compared to 23,337 units sold in June 2011.
Motorcycle sales stood at 61,274 units in the month of June 2012 down by 12.29% compared to 69,859 units sold in the month of June 2011.  Scooter sales stood at 38,166 units in the month of June 2012 down by 13.81% compared to 44,281 units sold in the month of June 2012. Moped sales stood at 65,998 units in the month of June 2012. Cumulative sales for the period of April to June 2012 reported de growth of 2.79% over the last year same period. The company sold 5,10,081 units this year compared to 5,24,707 units last year for the period of April to June. The company targets 8-10% growth this year.
Yamaha India Sales Figures – June, 2012
Yamaha India did not report sales figure for the month of June 2012. It has reported number for January to June 2012 where it is showing growth of 9.65%. However, on doing backward calculation the company has reported negative growth for May and June 2012. The company has sold 69,336 units of two wheelers for the period of May to June 2012 down by 7.60% compared to 75,041 units for the same period last year.  Domestic sales for May-June 2012 stood at 50,605 units down by 8.35% compared to 55,216 units last year for the same period. Export stood at 18,711 units down by 7.30 compared to 20,185 units.  For the period of April to June 2012 the company has sold 1,05,917 units down by 3.29 compared to  1,09,517 units last year. The company aims to sell 6.3 lakhs units this year including export.
Suzuki Motorcycles Sales Figures – June, 2012
Suzuki Motorcycle India did not report figure for June 2012. It seems that the company has reported flat or negative sales for the June 2012, just like Yamaha Motor Corporation which did not release last month figures. The company sold 25,367 units in June 2011. The company sold 36,746 units in the Month of May 2012. Cumulative sales for April-June 2011 stood at 84,958 units. We do not have cumulative sales figure for April – June 2012 as the company did not report June 2012 months figure.
Mahindra Two wheelers Sales Figures – June, 2012
Mahindra Two Wheeler reported de growth of 4.66% in the month of June 2012 compared to June 2011. Total sales stood at 11,201 units in the month of June 2012 compared to 11,748 units in the month of June 2011. Month on Month basis the company’s sales is up by 23.14%. The company sold 9,096 units last month. Cumulative sales for the period of April to June 2012 reported de growth of 5.54% over the last year same period. The company sold 30,488 units this year compared to 32,276 units last year for the period of April to June.
Royal Enfield: Please refer to Royal Enfield reports 42% growth in 2011  post for Royal Enfield sales performance.

Bike Sales Figures – June, 2012 Summary:

Indian two wheeler industry reported single digit growth for the month of June 2012. Total sales stood at 1.32 million units in the month of June 2012 compared to 1.25 million units in the same period last year registering growth of 6.84%.  Cumulative sales for April to June month stood at 4.04 million units compared to 3.70 million units registering growth of 9.29%.
Hero Motocorp sold 1.64 million units while Bajaj Auto sold 0.98 million units during the April to June 2012. HMSI, TVS Motors, Yamaha and Suzuki motorcycles reported 0.65 million, 0.51 million, 0.10 million and 0.09 million units respectively. Mahindra two wheelers reported 0.03 million units. If the monsoon remains weak then there is possibility of negative growth in the second quarter of the financial year 2012-13.

KTM DUKE 200 Road Test and Review

Duke 200 Bikeadvice Review
27th Feb 2012, the day KTM Duke 200 started its deliveries in Bangalore. The previous night our co-author and review writer Mr. Naren gave me a call and said, “KTM will be un-veiled tomorrow”. The moment he said that, I was in truck loads of mixed emotions. Was happy that a new kind of biking gene would be starting in India. At the same time, was eager to compare it against my all new Honda CBR250R which had created a huge speculation as its competitor just because KTM could shell out 25bhp of power. So, it was Mr. Amit Nandi, Vice President, Bajaj Auto, who took the honor to do it in Bangalore. That was the moment Indian bikers got a new trend setter, the bike which carry an attitude along with the riders.
KTM Dukes India
So, it was all set and I, being the photographer then covered the launch and was all set to burn the KTM’s rubber the next day along with Naren. But, due to unforeseen reasons that was cancelled and Unfortunately that was the last time me and Naren worked together.
Now, let’s roll up even back to know what KTM is.
KTM Duke India
Well, KTM is an Australian breed which is named after its founder as usual, Mr. Hans Trunkenpolz (Kraftfahrzeuge Trunkenpolz Mattighofen). KTM is also the second largest player in the Europe only after BMW. And if you have heard about KTM, there is another event which just pops up into anyone’s mind, the Paris – Dhakar rally. Which is the ‘THE’ most toughest rally on the Planet Earth covering an off–road hostile terrain of 9000 kms. And KTM bikes have ended up being 1st on the finish line for 11 consecutive years. And in the 2012 rally, 7 out of the top 10 bikes were in KTM bikes. If there could be any example of sheer domination, then this is it.
Though very well known for off-road biking, KTM also have superior bikes like the RC8, adventures’ series and many more. But if there could be one bike ruling the streets, that is the KTM Duke 200. Well, enough of the history, the company and everything, let me jump into what the bike really is and how it performed in our test.

KTM DUKE 200cc Review by BikeAdvice

DUKE 200cc Design
Muscular, elegant, aggressive and yet beautiful is what I would like to describe the Duke 200 as. It comes with a super light Trellis frame and the 200cc engine sitting right inside it. With the straight lined up powerful headlights, very muscular looking tank, the sharp edges, the split seats, the under belly exhaust, a very attractive aluminum swing arm and more, makes the bike look one of the best in the present day market. The build quality is top class and over all it has been superbly designed. Though the looks of the bike is very subjective, I loved the way it looked and I am pretty sure most of you out there carry the same feeling along with me.
Duke 200 design
KTM Duke front duke rear
KTM Duke 200 pic
BikeAdvice rating- 4.5/5
DUKE 200cc Engine and performance
KTM is well known for its high level of engine refinement and it is very evident in the Duke 200. It comes with an energetic 199cc, 4-valve, single cylinder, liquid-cooled DOHC engine with an accurate fuel injection unit which produces 25bhp of power at 10,000rpm and 19Nm of torque at 8,000rpm. Well, enough of all the numbers, the review here is all about how the bike feels and you can find the numbers in the technical specifications column below.
Duke Engine
The engine is very powerful and with that extremely light weight body, it seems to jump like a horse even with a small twist of wrist. It climbs the revs very quickly and needs to be geared up very quickly before the rev limiter cuts off the power supply at 10,500rpm. And trust me, the rev limiter is very sharp. At 10,500rpm the bike is confused if to give full power or no power at all. Though the engine is powerful, there are no vibrations of any kind at any speeds. But then it is more of like a horse, gallops and starts with a high pull and later increases just a little as you can never notice how fast the revs climb up and all you need to do is gear up.
BikeAdvice rating- 4/5
DUKE 200cc Handling and brakes
Handling is one department in which you can never complain anything about the bike. Its low weight makes it extremely flickable and mass centralization with an under belly exhaust and the frame makes it a bliss to corner. The huge 150mm rear tyre offers abundance grip and builds in a confidence to attack corners at high speeds. The all new MRF Revz – c tyres have done wonders. I have never seen a MRF tyre grip so much, in my life. In fact it stuck like a leech on the tarmac, it was very very difficult for me to pull a burnout on the tarmac even when revved up very high.
KTM Duke Braking
The high performance WP inverted forks at the front, and the WP monoshock suspension with 10-step adjustable preload at the rear does its job very accurately by absorbing hard bumps or Indian road’s famous pot holes. But then it is not too soft either, it is a perfect blend, soft enough for daily use on Indian roads and hard enough to attack any corner with complete aggression. And yeah, to put a smile on your face, the front forks are of those types which are present on the monstrous RC8 and the performer Super Duke 990.
ktm duke disc brake
Speaking about the brakes, the Bybre disks does its job amazingly in the front, while there is not enough response from the rear, leaving a lock up of the rear wheel or very low stopping power which is disappointing. But then the front brakes are way too powerful and will compensate the rear issues.
BikeAdvice rating – 3.5/5
DUKE 200cc Riding comfort and pillion comfort
I was completely blown away with the weird sitting posture. It is a up-right position while your legs are pushed back making it a new posture, but then it was amazingly comfortable throughout my testing period. The wide handle bars gives you a feeling as good as holding a 25 horse chariot’s REIN.
duke backseat
You can zip through the traffic very easily without taking any toll on your wrist or your back. But then once the speed increases, particularly over 95kmph, it takes some effort to get adjusted to the wind blast and makes you hold the handle quite hard, which would strain the rider.
duke shock absorber
And the pillion seats are designed as per the bike’s dimensions, only a very slim or zero sized person can fit into it making it extremely uncomfortable for long hours of journey.
BikeAdvice rating – 3.5/5.
The numb that matters – SPEED
The KTM as I said is very powerful and is capable of doing high speeds and its body supports it. But then, the top speed of the bike is restricted to 136kmph in the top gear at 10,500rpm while the rev limiter cuts off the power supply. But the bike definitely is capable of doing more. There are power parts supplied by the KTM itself, which removes the rev limiter at 10,500rpm, but then think again. Rev limiters are used to keep the bike’s engine in good condition for the long term, if so then why remove it? (This is purely my opinion).
Duke 200 cc India
Its top speeds in various gears are as follows:
1st gear – 45kmph
2nd gear –59kmph
3rd gear –79kmph
4th gear –98kmph
5th gear –119kmph
6th gear -136kmph
It takes just above 9sec to reach 100 kmph and just less than 4 seconds to reach 60 kmph from stand still, which is astonishing.
BikeAdvice rating – 4/5
DUKE 200cc Electronics and Electricals
Let me start with the console which would steal the show by huge margin comparing to any other Indian bike in this segment. It showcases information like no other bike available today could even match up in the near future. As soon as turn it on, the KTM  with a pleasing orange back light console shouts, “READY TO RACE” while the engine check is done in the background. And once that is gone, there is a note, side stand down, until you remove it. And then the information like gear indications, speedometer, bar type tachometer, engine temperature and fuel gauge, two trip meters, clock, average speed, riding time in Minutes, Average fuel efficiency in kmpl as well as L/100kms, distance to empty and distance to next service is displayed.
Duke Digital Meter Duke Tach
And if you think that is too much, there are still a few more lights to tell stuffs like, Turn signal indicators, Engine diagnosis light, Gear shift lights, Neutral indicator, High beam indicator and General warning light respectively in the order from left to right and then down.(There are still, 2 more light hoses for your own personalization. :D ) But then though it has a lot of features, it’s not so attractive and not eye catchy at 1st sight.
KTM duke handle
DUke 200 head Duke 200 taillamp
duke left handle
KTM Duke indicators
The headlights are very strong and will never let you down. The indicators are so tiny and go with the bike’s characteristics, but are very powerful that I could see it flashing from about 50mtrs behind in a heavy down pour. The LED tail lights definitely need a mention which not only performs its duty at its best, it also looks great.
BikeAdvice Rating – 4.5/5
DUKE 200cc Mileage/Economy
Again back to India’s favorite question, “Kitna Deti Hai?”
Duke India mileage
Well, it gives an average economy of about 32kmpl (Plus or Minus 10KMPL) depending on the riding conditions. When I revved it up very hard its average was about 22Kmpl, whereas cruising in the top gear at 65 – 80 kmph, I got an average economy of about 44kmpl.
Hmm ever thought if your riding style has so much effect on the economy?
Test it out to agree with me. Well, for a 200cc, 25bhp motor, an average of 32kmpl is still a very good economy.
DUKE 200cc Pros and Con
What is so cool about the bike?
  • The badge “KTM”
  • Highly refined and very smooth engine
  • Very sharp Handling
  • The beauty of its own which cannot be described in words
  • A very low weight of about 125kgs makes it a great handler
  • Higher power to weight ratio
  • Under belly exhaust not only looks cool, also helps is mass centralization
  • Powerful head lights makes riding easy in all conditions
  • KTM badge in a lots of places which pampers its owner
  • “STUNTING” if there could be any bike which would suit it perfectly, it is the KTM.
  • Pricing- As it is manufactured by Bajaj and is not brought as a CBU, costs very less.
What is not really cool about it?
  • Rear brake is a huge let down
  • Horn would suit a moped more than a 200cc beast
  • Riding comfort in high speeds is still a question
  • Pillion comfort should not be expected
  • A very small fuel tank capacity of 10.5ltrs
  • Bajaj’s name is visible in a few places like the radiator and the electric start motor, which gives a un-premiumness feeling
  • Though very powerful, you don’t get that torque feeling that any petrol head would want.
KTM Duke India Price as on July, 2012
Duke baby
Whenever you park the bike or stop in the signal or a petrol pump, the 2nd question they ask you is, how much the bike cost. Well, it is priced at INR 1.17lak (ex-showroom Delhi) Feel it’s too high? Think what it would cost if Bajaj was not manufacturing it and if it would come down as a CBU.
DUKE Color
It comes with a single color scheme of Black and orange, which not only is beautiful, is also a head turner for sure.
KTM DUKE 200cc Spares and services
Though Bajaj is hosting up the spares and services of the KTM bikes in India, its standards are very high. Service has been good and the spares have been priced fair enough leaving nothing to complain about the bike.
BikeAdvice Verdict: 4/5
Well here comes the final part of the review. So,  for which kind of rider is this bike more suited?
Well, KTM has placed this bike as a Street fighter. It does that job brilliantly being the best out there in the market for city riding. It is for those who just don’t use the bike for commuting, it’s for those who travel with an attitude, with passion. It is for those who want to zip around fast in the traffic with all those people around humming, “WooooW” and for a short weekend relaxed ride. It is one of those machines which are built to bring a smile on the rider’s face and is really fun to hang out.
Well, I would like to whole heartedly thank Shreeda Kumar from Bangalore for happily lending his pride possession for BikeAdvice road test and watch it being treated badly by me. Also special thanks to Manish Kumar Choudhary for arranging the bike and helping the review by helping in capturing some beautiful photos while I was riding.
KTM Duke 200cc Technical Specifications
KTM Duke Engine
Design            Single-cylinder, 4-stroke, spark-ignition engine, liquid-cooled
Displacement        200 cm³
Bore                72 mm
Stroke            49 mm
Performance        18.4 kW (25 hp)
Torque            19.2 Nm
Starting aid            Electric starter
Transmission        6-speed, claw shifted
Engine lubrication        Forced oil lubrication with 1 rotor pump
Primary gear ratio        22:72
Secondary gear ratio    14:43
Cooling system    Liquid cooling system, continuous circulation of cooling liquid with water pump
Clutch            Clutch in oil bath / mechanically operated
Ignition system    Contactless, controlled, fully electronic ignition system with digital ignition timing adjustment
Frame            Tubular space frame made from steel tubes, powder-coated
Fork                WP Suspension 4357
Shock absorber        WP Suspension 4618 EM
Suspension travel         Front    150 mm
Suspension travel         Rear    150 mm
Brake system Front    Disc brake with two-pot brake caliper
Brake system Rear    Disc brake with one-pot brake caliper, floating brake discs
Brake discs – diameter front    300 mm
Brake discs – diameter rear    230 mm
Chain                5/8 x 1/4” (520) O‑Ring
Steering head angle        65°
Wheel base            1,361±15 mm
Ground clearance (unloaded)    165 mm
Seat height (unloaded)        810 mm
Total fuel tank capacity approx.    10.5 l
Unleaded premium fuel         (95 RON)
Weight without fuel approx.    125 kg
More KTM Duke Photos from the test ride:
duke key duke logo
Duke headlight
KTM Duke pics
KTM duke footrest
KTM Duke 2012 pics
KTM Duke test ride pics
Bajaj KTM Duke Bikeadvice Rating

Monday, 23 July 2012

BMW Safety 360 Degree Concept

BMW concept
BMW Motorrad, German motorcycle manufacturer has introduced a new unique safety 360 degree concept for optimum safety of rider.  The concept has been created to give rider maximum safety and offering relaxed and carefree riding pleasure. BMW Motorrad is going to install ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) as standard under this concept from the year 2013, which is 3 years ahead of European Law.

The concept is based on three pillars:
  • Vehicle: Innovative safety technologies in the motorcycle itself.
  • Rider Equipment: A very highest quality and functional rider equipment.
  • Rider Training: A program of qualified rider training courses for every skill level and every type of terrain.
BMW concept4
Vehicle: Under this pillar BMW Motorrad engineers want to equip motorcycles with advanced technology related to safety. As a part of safety 360 degree program, all the BMW motorcycles will be fitted with ABS as standard starting from 2013. ABS is highly sophisticated brake system that ensures that the motorcycle can be spontaneously controlled under the extreme braking condition.
BMW concept1
Apart from ABS, the motorcycle will also be equipped with DTC (Dynamic Traction Control) which ensure maximum yet safe acceleration and RDC (Tyre pressure control) ensures that tyre pressure is according to requirement.  BMW Motorrad has also included electronic suspension adjustment system as a part of this program which adapts suspension and damping to motorcycle load and road conditions.
Rider Equipment: Under this pillar BMW offers safest rider equipment which is tried and tested by motorcycle specialist. BMW has very rich experience in developing high quality rider equipment like helmet and jacket. In BMW words “Today, all helmets and items of clothing are developed by motorcycle specialists and tested to the limits. An absolute highlight on the test bench is Armacor – a textile fabric which almost equals the abrasion resistance of leather as well as being highly tear-proof.
BMW equipmentBMW riding jacket
All jackets, trousers and suits are dual-layered at sensitive points, with double seams and fitted with the latest generation of CE protectors. This enables them to stand up to all the stresses and strains of everyday motorcycling, including the hardest contact with asphalt and gravel, without limiting the rider’s agility. In order to be truly safe, rider equipment must also meet all ergonomical requirements. For this reason, BMW Motorrad helmets provide a very low noise level, and clothing items are fitted with innovative ventilation and membrane systems. “
Rider Training: Under this pillar BMW offer various kinds of training programs which help rider to ride safely in any condition. It offers courses and certification like IIA (International Instructor Academy) certification, safety training courses, race track training courses, off-road training course and courses for new/beginner riders. International Instructor Academy (IIA) is a professional qualification offered by BMW Motorrad according to international standards: it is regarded as the benchmark in the industry.
BMW traning
BMW concept2
The safety 360 degree concept of BMW Motorrad has set new benchmark in motorcycle industry. In India we have Yamaha following some of these practices like rider safety and training courses. We wish that Indian manufacturers will also introduce this kind of concept suitable to Indian condition apart from just focusing on increasing sales and new launches.

Thursday, 19 July 2012

Efficiency, BP, BSFC, BMEP calculation -Two Stroke, Single Cylinder Petrol Engine

1.     Torque, T = 9.81 x W x R Effective Nm.
Where R Effective = (D + d)/2 m,
W (Load) = ( S1 S2) Kg.
2.     Brake Power, B P = ( 2πN T ) / 60, 000 KW
Where N = rpm,
T = Torque Nm,
3.     Indicated Power, I P = n ( Pm x L Stroke x A x N’) / 60,000 KW
Where Pm = Mean Effective Pressure N/ m2,
L Stroke = Stroke m,
A (Cross Section of the Cylinder) = (πD2Bore)/ 4 m2,
N’ (Number of Power Strokes/ min.)
= N/ 2 per min. (For Four Stroke Engine)
=N per min. (For Two Stroke Engine)
N = rpm, and
n = Number of Cylinders.
4.    Fuel Consumption, m f = ( 50 ml x 106 x ρ Fuel ) / ( t ) Kg/Sec.
Here; 1 ml = 10-3 liters, and 1000 liters = 1m3
So 1 ml = 10-6 m3
5.     Brake Mean Effective Pressure, BMEP = (BP x 60,000)/ ( L Stroke x A x N’) N/ m2
Where L Stroke = Stroke m,
A (Cross Section of the Cylinder) = (π D2Bore)/4 m2,
N’ (Number of Power Strokes/ min.)
= N/ 2 per min. (For Four Stroke Engine.)
= N per min. (For Two Stroke Engine)
N = speed in rpm.
6.     Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, BSFC = ( mf x 3600 ) / BP Kg/ KW . hr
7.     Indicated Specific Fuel Consumption, ISFC = ( mf x 3600 ) / IP Kg/ KW .hr
8.     Indicated Thermal Efficiency, η Indicated Thermal = ( IP x 100 ) / (mf x C.V. )%
9.    Brake Thermal Efficiency, η Brake Thermal = ( B P x 100 ) / (mf x C.V. ) %
10. Mass of the Air, m Air = Cd Ao √2 g Δh ρ Air ρ Water Kg/ Sec ;
Where Cd ( Coefficient of Discharge ) = 0.6,
ρAir= ( Pa x 102 ) / ( R x Ta ) Kg/m3
Ao ( Area of Orifice ) = (π do 2)/ 4 m2,
Pa = 1.01325 Bar,
R = 0.287 KJ/ Kg K .
Ta = ( ta + 273 ) K,
ta = Ambient Temperature O C
11.  Air Fuel Ratio, A/F = ( m Air / mf ) Kg/ Kg of Fuel
12.  Volumetric Efficiency, η Volumetric = ( VAir x 100 )/ Vs %
Where VAir ( Volume of air inhaled/ Sec.) = ( m Air / ρ Air ) m3/ Sec.
Vs ( Swept Volume/ Sec.) = n . ( L Stroke . A.. N’ )/ 60 m3/ Sec.,
And Volume of fuel is Neglected (Based on free air conditions),
A (Cross Section of the Cylinder) = (π D2Bore)/ 4 m2,
L Stroke = Stroke in m,
N’ (Number of Power Strokes/ min.)
= N/ 2 per min. (For Four Stroke Engine)
= N per min (For Two Stroke Engine)
N = speed in rpm., and n = Number of Cylinders.
13.    Mechanical Efficiency, ηmechanical = BP / IP

The BSFC calculation (in metric units) (Wikipedia)

To calculate this rate, use the formula  BSFC = \frac{r}{P}
r is the fuel consumption rate in grams per second (g·s-1)
P is the power produced in watts where P = τω
ω is the engine speed in radians per second (rad·s-1)
τ is the engine torque in newton meters (N·m)
The resulting units of BSFC are grams per joule (g·J−1)
Commonly BSFC is expressed in units of grams per kilowatt-hour (g/(kW·h)). The conversion factor is as follows:
BSFC [g/(kW·h)] = BSFC [g/J]×(3.6×106)

Engine formulas

Cylinder Swept Volume (Vc):

            Vc= cylinder swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
            Ac = cylinder area [cm2 or cm2/100]
            dc = cylinder diameter [cm or cm/10]
            L = stroke length (the distance between the TDC and BDC) [cm or cm/10]
BDC = Bottom Dead Center
            TDC = Top Dead Center
* Increase the diameter or the stroke length will increase the cylinder volume, the ratio between the cylinder diameter/cylinder stroke called “bore/stroke” ratio.
- “bore/stroke” >1 is called over square engine, and is used in automotive engines
- “bore/stroke” =1 is called square engine
- “bore/stoke” <1 is called= under square engine, and is used in tractor engine
Engine Swept Volume (Ve):
            Ve = engine swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
            n = number of cylinders
            Vc = cylinder swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
Ac = cylinder area [cm2 or cm2/100]
dc =  cylinder diameter [cm or cm/10]
* The units of cylinder swept volume is measured in (cm3, cubic centimeter (cc), or liter)
- Ve  for small engines, 4 cylinder engines is (750 cc:1300 cc)
- Ve for big engine, 8 cylinder engines is (1600 cc:2500 cc)
Compression Ratio (r):
            r = compression ratio
            Vs = cylinder swept volume (combustion chamber volume) [cc, L, or m3]
            Vc = cylinder volume     [cc, L, or m3]
* Increase the compression ratio increase engine power
- r (gasoline engine) = 7:12, the upper limit is engine pre ignition
- r (diesel engine) = 10:18, the upper limit is the stresses on engine parts
Engine Volumetric Efficiency (hv):
            hV  = volumetric efficiency
            Vair = volume of air taken into cylinder [cc, L, or m3]
            Vc = cylinder swept volume [cc, L, or m3]
* Increase the engine volumetric efficiency increase engine power
- Engine of normal aspiration has a volumetric efficiency of 80% to 90%
- Engine volumetric efficiency can be increased by using:
(turbo and supper charger can increase the volumetric efficiency by 50%)
Engine Indicated Torque (Ti):
            Ti = engine indicated torque [Nm]
            imep = indicated mean effective pressure [N/m2]
            Ac = cylinder area [m2]
                L = stroke length [m]
            z = 1 (for 2 stroke engines), 2 (for 4 stroke engines)
n = number of cylinders
θ = crank shaft angle [1/s]
Engine Indicated Power (Pi):
            imep = is the indicated mean effective pressure [N/m2]
            Ac = cylinder area [m2]
            L = stroke length [m]
            n = number of cylinders
            N = engine speed [rpm]
            z = 1 (for 2 stroke engines), 2 (for 4 stroke engines)
            Vc = cylinder swept volume [m3]
            Ve = engine swept volume [m3]
            Ti = engine indicated torque [Nm]
            ω = engine angular speed [1/s]
Engine Mechanical Efficiency (hm):
            hm = mechanical efficiency
            Pb = engine brake power [kW]
            Pi = engine indicated power [kW]
            Pf = engine friction power [kW]
Engine Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC):
            SFC = specific fuel consumption [(kg/h)/kW, kg/(3600 s x kW), kg/(3600 kJ)]
            FC = fuel consumption [kg/h]
            Pb = brake power [kW]
Engine Thermal Efficiency (hth):
            hth = thermal efficiency
            Pb = brake power [kW]
            FC = fuel consumption [kg/h = (fuel consumption in L/h) x (ρ in kg/L)]
            CV = calorific value of kilogram fuel [kJ/kg]
            ρ = relative density of fuel [kg/L]